Modern vascular imaging technology has demonstrated calcified atheroma in medium and large arteries of preserved humans, between two and four thousand years old. The largest number studied was in Egypt, which at the time and before, was the wheat bowl and beer brewing capital, of the Mediterranean. All those studied had dental evidence of caries, abscess, broken teeth and the wear of grinding sand and wheat seed. The first conversion to gardening and farming by homosapiens seems to have been 10-12,000 years ago in an area between the Euphrates and Indus Rivers known as the Golden Cresent, now part of Northern Iraq. Similar, slow patchy changes to agriculture arose in areas many thousands of miles away, for reasons still unclear.The hunter-gatherer life practice areas and numbers contracted and groups were being discovered in the mid 20th century The conversion to forms of agriculture were spread over many thousands of years and haphazardly over the planet.The hunter-gatherer life practice, not growing plant food, has been the predominant source of nutrition, inspite of becoming omnivores near two million years ago, up to the Neolithic period, 5-12 ,000 years ago. As herbivores then carnivores our source of Carbohydrate was from arguably over 200 plant items, where it was part of the fibrous structures, tissues and polysaccharide compounds with starches. Sugars were few except for some fruits and berries in season. The gut structures, organs, physiology, digestion, hormone release, metabolism, were orchestrated to this very diverse nutrition, energy, necessity.
The current Gorilla, Chimpanzee, herbivore primates would have a close semblance to the nutrition of our fore-bears, where the demand for Insulin would be less than today; where processed CHO and sugar dominate all commercial food. Pre-agriculture dietary CHO was ‘tied up’ so to speak and normal peristalsis would move it on where small and large bowel fermentatioin provided